Radio active isotope techniques sediment dating
In fact, one would expect that the ratio of oranges to apples would change in a very specific way over the time elapsed, since the process continues until all the apples are converted. A particular rock or mineral that contains a radioactive isotope (or radio-isotope) is analyzed to determine the number of parent and daughter isotopes present, whereby the time since that mineral or rock formed is calculated.
Of course, one must select geologic materials that contain elements with long half-lives— those for which some parent atoms would remain.
In other words, it is the obligation of geochronologists to try to prove themselves wrong by including a series of cross-checks in their measurements before they publish a result.
Such checks include dating a series of ancient units with closely spaced but known relative ages and replicate analysis of different parts of the same rock body with samples collected at widely spaced localities.
In short, the process of radioactive decay is immutable under all known conditions.
Although it is impossible to predict when a particular atom will change, given a sufficient number of atoms, the rate of their decay is found to be constant.
This follows because, as each parent atom loses its identity with time, it reappears as a daughter atom. In short, one need only measure the ratio of the number of radioactive parent and daughter atoms present, and the time elapsed since the mineral or rock formed can be calculated, provided of course that the decay rate is known. The measurement of the daughter-to-parent ratio must be accurate because uncertainty in this ratio contributes directly to uncertainty in the age.By way of explanation it can be noted that since the cause of the process lies deep within the atomic nucleus, external forces such as extreme heat and pressure have no effect.The same is true regarding gravitational, magnetic, and electric fields, as well as the chemical state in which the atom resides.Given below is the simple mathematical relationship that allows the time elapsed to be calculated from the measured parent/daughter ratio.The age calculated is only as good as the existing knowledge of the decay rate and is valid only if this rate is constant over the time that elapsed.